In Sport Genes Count – ie choose your parents!

Elite sporting performance results from the combination of innumerable factors, which interact with one another in a poorly understood but complex manner to mould a talented athlete into a champion. Within the
field of sports science, elite performance is understood to be the result of both training and genetic factors.

However, the extent to which champions are born or made is a question that remains one of
considerable interest, since it has implications for talent identification and management, as well as for how sporting federations allocate scarce resources towards the optimisation of high-performance
programmes. The present review describes the contributions made by deliberate practice and genetic factors to the attainment of a high level of sporting performance. The authors conclude that although
deliberate training and other environmental factors are critical for elite performance, they cannot by themselves produce an elite athlete.

Rather, individual performance thresholds are determined by our genetic make-up, and training can be defined as the process by which genetic potential is realised. Although the specific details are currently unknown, the current scientific literature clearly indicates that both nurture and nature are involved in determining elite
athletic performance. In conclusion, elite sporting performance is the result of the interaction between genetic and training factors, with the result that both talent identification and management systems to
facilitate optimal training are crucial to sporting success.

Br J Sports Med 2012;46:555-561 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090548
Ross Tucker1,
Malcolm Collins2